Exploring the Azerbaijan National Bird

The European Roller (Coracias garrulus) is a strikingly colorful bird species that has been designated as the Azerbaijan National Bird. The European Roller is known for its vibrant plumage, impressive aerial acrobatics, and fascinating breeding behavior. In this article, we will explore the unique characteristics of the European Roller, its distribution, habitat, and conservation status, as well as answer some frequently asked questions about this captivating bird.

Distribution and Habitat

The European Roller is a migratory bird that breeds in a wide range of habitats, from open woodlands and farmlands to grasslands, savannas, and semi-deserts. Their breeding range spans across Europe, Asia, and North Africa, while they winter in sub-Saharan Africa. In Azerbaijan, the European Roller can be found in various habitats, including forests, agricultural lands, and river valleys.

Physical Characteristics of Azerbaijan National Bird

The European Roller is a medium-sized bird measuring 29-32 cm in length and weighing between 125-155 grams. It exhibits a striking blue and purple plumage, with an overall azure-blue color on the upperparts, wings, and tail, and a warm chestnut-brown color on the breast. The head and neck are pale blue, and the eyes are surrounded by a black mask. Both sexes have similar plumage, while juveniles are duller in color.

Behavior and Diet

European Rollers are known for their impressive aerial displays, which they perform during courtship and territorial disputes. They feed primarily on insects, including beetles, grasshoppers, and crickets, but will also consume small vertebrates like frogs, lizards, and even small birds. The European Roller catches its prey in flight or by swooping down from a perch.


The breeding season for European Rollers typically occurs from May to July. They are cavity nesters and prefer to nest in tree holes, abandoned woodpecker cavities, or even artificial nest boxes. The female lays 3-6 eggs, which are incubated by both parents for about 17-19 days. The chicks are fed by both parents and fledge at around 25-30 days after hatching.

Conservation Status of Azerbaijan National Bird

The European Roller is currently listed as “Near Threatened” on the IUCN Red List. The primary threats to this species include habitat loss, agricultural intensification, and the use of pesticides. Conservation efforts are focused on habitat preservation, providing artificial nest boxes, and raising awareness about the importance of this species in the ecosystem.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Why is the European Roller the national bird of Azerbaijan?

The European Roller is chosen as the national bird of Azerbaijan due to its vibrant plumage, unique behavior, and cultural significance. It symbolizes the natural beauty and rich biodiversity of Azerbaijan.

2. What is the lifespan of a European Roller?

The average lifespan of a European Roller is around 5-8 years, although some individuals may live longer in the wild.

3. How can I identify a European Roller?

The European Roller can be identified by its vibrant blue and purple plumage, black eye mask, and acrobatic flight patterns. It is a medium-sized bird with a strong, thick beak.

4. Do European Rollers migrate?

Yes, European Rollers are migratory birds. They breed in Europe, Asia, and North Africa, and winter in sub-Saharan Africa.

5. What can be done to help conserve the European Roller population?

Conservation efforts for the European Roller include preserving and restoring suitable habitats, providing artificial nest boxes, reducing pesticide use, and raising awareness about the species’ importance in the ecosystem.

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