Cape Verdean National Tree: A National Treasure of Cabo Verde

In the archipelago of Cabo Verde, a remarkable tree species known as the Cape Verdean National Tree (Dracaena draco) stands tall as a national treasure. With its majestic appearance, historical significance, and cultural symbolism, this unique tree has captured the hearts of both locals and visitors alike. In this article, we will explore the captivating features of the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree, its habitat, uses, conservation efforts, and more. Join us on this journey to discover the secrets of this magnificent tree.

What is the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree?

The Cape Verdean Dragon Tree, scientifically known as Dracaena draco, is an iconic tree species native to the volcanic islands of Cabo Verde. It belongs to the Asparagaceae family and is characterized by its impressive size, with some individuals reaching heights of up to 15 meters. The tree derives its name from the dragon-like resin that oozes from its trunk when cut or injured.

Historical Significance of the Cape Verdean National Tree

The Cape Verdean Dragon Tree holds great historical importance in Cabo Verde. It has been revered for centuries, with legends and tales passed down through generations. The ancient inhabitants of Cabo Verde, including the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, believed the tree possessed mystical powers. It was associated with fertility, protection, and the balance between earth and sky.

Physical Characteristics of the Cape Verdean National Tree

The Cape Verdean Dragon Tree has a distinctive appearance that sets it apart from other tree species. Its thick, rugged trunk is covered in grayish-brown bark, resembling dragon scales. The tree’s branches extend upwards, forming a dense crown of long, lance-shaped leaves. The leaves themselves are deep green and have a leathery texture.

Habitat and Distribution

The natural habitat of the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree is limited to the islands of Cabo Verde, located off the western coast of Africa. It thrives in arid and semi-arid conditions, often found in rocky areas and cliffs. The tree’s ability to withstand drought and strong winds has allowed it to adapt to the island’s challenging environment.

Cultural and Symbolic Importance

The Cape Verdean Dragon Tree holds deep cultural significance in the lives of the Cabo Verdean people. It is considered a symbol of strength, resilience, and longevity. The tree’s association with fertility has led to its inclusion in various ceremonies and rituals. Its image can be found in traditional arts, crafts, and even on the national flag of Cabo Verde.

Benefits and Uses

Apart from its cultural significance, the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree provides numerous benefits and practical uses. The resin derived from the tree, known as dragon’s blood, has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for its healing properties. It is believed to possess antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory qualities. The timber of the tree is also highly valued for its durability and is used in construction and furniture making.

Conservation Efforts for Cape Verdean National Tree

Due to its limited distribution and vulnerability to habitat loss, the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree is classified as a vulnerable species. Recognizing its ecological and cultural importance, conservation efforts have been initiated to protect and preserve the tree. Measures such as habitat restoration, controlled harvesting of resin, and public awareness campaigns have been implemented to ensure its survival for future generations.

How to Grow and Care for Cape Verdean Dragon Trees

If you’re fascinated by the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree and wish to grow one in your own garden, here are some tips for successful cultivation. The tree thrives in well-drained soil and requires plenty of sunlight. It can tolerate moderate drought but benefits from occasional watering. Propagation is commonly done through seeds or stem cuttings. Patience is key, as the tree takes several years to reach maturity.

Common Myths and Legends about Cape Verdean National Tree

The rich folklore surrounding the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree has given rise to several myths and legends. One popular belief is that the tree’s resin possesses magical properties, capable of warding off evil spirits and promoting good luck. Another legend tells the story of a dragon that transformed into the tree, forever guarding the islands of Cabo Verde.

Interesting Facts about the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree

  • The Cape Verdean Dragon Tree is one of the oldest living tree species, with some individuals estimated to be over a thousand years old.
  • The resin of the tree was highly prized in ancient times and traded as a valuable commodity.
  • The scientific name “Dracaena draco” is derived from the Greek word for dragon, emphasizing the mythical qualities associated with the tree.
  • The Cape Verdean Dragon Tree has inspired various works of art, literature, and poetry throughout history.
  • Despite its name, the tree is not exclusive to Cabo Verde and can also be found in other Canary Islands and parts of North Africa.


Q: Are Cape Verdean Dragon Trees easy to grow?

A: While the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree can be cultivated, it requires specific conditions and takes several years to mature.

Q: Can I obtain dragon’s blood resin from the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree?

A: Yes, the tree produces resin known as dragon’s blood, which has various traditional medicinal uses.

Q: What is the significance of the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree in Cabo Verde’s culture?

A: The tree holds cultural significance, symbolizing strength, resilience, and longevity. It is often associated with fertility and protection.

Q: How can I contribute to the conservation of the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree?

A: Supporting local conservation efforts, raising awareness, and respecting the tree’s natural habitat are essential for its preservation.

Q: Can I visit areas where the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree grows in Cabo Verde?

A: Yes, several islands in Cabo Verde, such as Santo Antão and São Nicolau, offer opportunities to see these majestic trees in their natural habitat.


The Cape Verdean Dragon Tree, also known as the Cabo Verdean dragon tree, is an awe-inspiring species that symbolizes the rich cultural heritage and natural beauty of Cabo Verde. With its historical significance, unique physical features, and contributions to traditional medicine, this national treasure deserves our admiration and protection. Let us celebrate and ensure the longevity of the Cape Verdean Dragon Tree for future generations to appreciate its splendor.


  • [1] Botanical Gardens of Cabo Verde. “Dracaena draco.” Retrieved from
  • [2] Ribeiro, S. et al. (2019). “Traditional uses of the Dracaena genus: A comprehensive review.” Industrial Crops & Products, 129, 453-467.
  • [3] National Directorate for the Environment of Cabo Verde. (2017). “National Strategy and Action Plan for the Conservation of Flora.”

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