Bhutan National Dress: Gho and Kira

In the picturesque country of Bhutan, known for its stunning landscapes and vibrant culture, the Bhutan National Dress holds a special place. The traditional attire, worn with pride by Bhutanese men and women, reflects the rich heritage and deep-rooted traditions of the nation. This article explores the intricacies of Bhutan’s national dress, the gho for men and kira for women, shedding light on their history, design, cultural significance, and more.

Gho: Traditional Attire for Men

Origin and History

The gho, a distinctive robe-like garment, has been a part of Bhutanese culture for centuries. It traces its origins back to the 17th century, during the reign of Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, the spiritual and political leader who unified Bhutan. The gho was introduced as a way to distinguish Bhutanese men from their Tibetan counterparts.

Design and Features

The gho is a knee-length robe made from woven fabric, usually cotton or silk. It is wrapped around the body, held in place with a belt called the kera. The gho is usually patterned with intricate designs, representing various auspicious symbols and traditional motifs. It features long sleeves and is worn with knee-high socks and leather shoes called tshoglham.

Significance and Cultural Importance

The gho holds immense cultural significance in Bhutan. It not only symbolizes the country’s distinct identity but also represents equality and modesty. Wearing the gho is considered a mark of respect for Bhutanese tradition and heritage. It is commonly worn for formal occasions, religious ceremonies, and governmental functions.

Kira: Traditional Attire for Women

Origin and History

The kira is the traditional attire worn by Bhutanese women. Similar to the gho, it has deep historical roots and has been a part of Bhutanese culture for centuries. The kira evolved from the clothing worn during the reign of Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal and has since become an integral part of Bhutanese identity.

Design and Features

The kira is an ankle-length dress made from vibrant, colorful fabric. It is a wrap-around garment that is fastened at the shoulder with a brooch or buckle known as the koma. The kira is often made from hand-woven textiles, featuring intricate patterns and designs that showcase the weaving skills of Bhutanese artisans.

Significance and Cultural Importance

The kira is more than just a piece of clothing; it represents the beauty, grace, and elegance of Bhutanese women. It is worn with great pride and is a symbol of cultural preservation and national identity. The kira is worn for various occasions, including weddings, festivals, and religious ceremonies.

Bhutan National Dress; Dressing Etiquette and Occasions

In Bhutan, there are specific rules and etiquette associated with wearing the gho and kira. It is essential to understand and respect these cultural norms when donning the national dress. The gho for men and kira for women are typically worn during formal occasions, religious ceremonies, festivals, and important events.

Bhutanese people take great pride in their national dress and consider it a symbol of their cultural heritage. When wearing the gho or kira, it is important to ensure proper fitting and appropriate styling. The gho should be worn with the belt securely fastened and folded neatly. Women wearing the kira should drape it elegantly and secure it with the koma.

Modern Adaptations and Fashion Trends for Bhutan National Dress

While the gho and kira have remained largely unchanged over the years, there have been some modern adaptations and fashion trends. Today, designers in Bhutan are exploring innovative ways to incorporate contemporary elements into the traditional attire, making it more versatile and appealing to the younger generation. These adaptations include experimenting with different fabrics, colors, and patterns, while still maintaining the essence of the gho and kira.

How to Wear a Gho and Kira

Wearing the gho and kira requires some practice and understanding of the proper techniques. Here are the basic steps to wear each attire:

Wearing the Gho (for Men):

  • Put on knee-high socks and leather shoes.
  • Wrap the gho around the body, with the right side overlapping the left.
  • Fold the excess fabric at the waist and secure it with the kera (belt).
  • Adjust the length and folds of the gho for a proper fit.
  • Fasten the gho at the shoulder with a brooch or pin.

Wearing the Kira (for Women):

  • Wear a blouse and a waistband.
  • Place the kira around the waist, ensuring the length reaches the ankle.
  • Hold the kira tightly and wrap it around the body.
  • Secure the kira with the koma (brooch) at the shoulder.
  • Adjust the folds and pleats to create an elegant drape.

Maintenance and Care of Bhutan National Dress

To maintain the beauty and longevity of the gho and kira, proper care is essential. Here are some tips for maintaining and caring for the Bhutanese national dress:

  • Dry clean the gho and kira to preserve the fabric and colors.
  • Store the garments in a cool, dry place to avoid damage from moisture.
  • Handle the gho and kira with care to prevent tears or snags.
  • Iron the attire at a moderate temperature to smoothen out any wrinkles.
  • Avoid exposing the gho and kira to direct sunlight for extended periods, as it may cause fading.

By following these maintenance practices, individuals can ensure that their gho and kira remain in excellent condition and can be cherished for years to come.

Economic Impact of Bhutan National Dress and Tourism Promotion

The Bhutanese national dress, with its unique and captivating aesthetics, plays a significant role in promoting tourism and contributing to the country’s economy. Many visitors are fascinated by the gho and kira and are eager to learn about Bhutan’s rich cultural heritage. As a result, the demand for locally made gho and kira has increased, creating employment opportunities for weavers, tailors, and artisans. Additionally, the popularity of Bhutan’s national dress has led to the establishment of boutique stores and fashion houses, further boosting the economy.


1. Can foreigners wear the gho and kira?

Yes, foreigners are welcome to wear the gho and kira, especially during festivals and cultural events. It is seen as a gesture of respect for Bhutanese traditions and can enhance the cultural experience for visitors.

2. Are there specific colors or designs for the gho and kira?

The gho and kira come in a variety of colors and designs. Traditional patterns and motifs are often used, but modern adaptations allow for more experimentation with colors and styles.

3. Can I buy a gho or kira as a souvenir?

Yes, you can purchase a gho or kira as a souvenir in Bhutan. There are numerous shops and boutiques that offer a wide selection of beautifully crafted national dresses.

4. Can I rent a gho or kira in Bhutan?

Some hotels and tour operators in Bhutan offer the option to rent a gho or kira for special occasions or cultural events. It’s best to inquire in advance to check availability.

5. Are there any restrictions on wearing the gho and kira?

While there are no specific restrictions, it is important to be mindful of cultural norms and customs when wearing the gho and kira. Dress modestly and respectfully, especially in religious and sacred places.


The Bhutanese national dress, comprising the gho for men and kira for women, represents the deep-rooted traditions, cultural heritage, and national identity of Bhutan. The gho and kira are not just garments; they are symbols of pride, unity, and the preservation of Bhutanese culture. By embracing and promoting the national dress, Bhutan continues to celebrate its unique heritage and captivate the world with its rich traditions.


  • Bhutan Cultural Atlas:
  • Tourism Council of Bhutan:
  • Bhutanese Traditional Dress. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Bhutanese Textiles. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Featured Image Credits: Max Mumby/Indigo/Getty Images

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