Bangladesh National Religion: Islam

Bangladesh, located in South Asia, is a country with a rich cultural heritage and a diverse religious landscape. In this article, we will explore the Bangladesh National Religion, which is Islam. We will delve into its historical background, the role it plays in the country today, its impact on culture and society, and the challenges it faces. Let’s embark on this journey to better understand Bangladesh’s national religion.

Bangladesh, with its vibrant history and diverse population, is predominantly a Muslim-majority country. Islam plays a vital role in shaping the culture, traditions, and values of the Bangladeshi people. The teachings of Islam have deeply influenced various aspects of their lives, including art, literature, and governance.

Historical Background of Bangladesh National Religion

The roots of Islam in Bangladesh can be traced back to the 13th century when Sufi saints and Islamic mystics began spreading the teachings of Islam. Their emphasis on spiritualism and devotion attracted a significant following. The arrival of Muslim rulers, such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals, further solidified the presence of Islam in the region.

Islam in Bangladesh Today

Presently, Islam is the predominant religion in Bangladesh, with approximately 90% of the population identifying as Muslims. The Muslim community in Bangladesh follows a blend of Sunni and Shia traditions. Islamic practices and rituals form an integral part of their daily lives, including prayer, fasting during Ramadan, and giving alms to the poor.

Islamic Institutions and Organizations

Bangladesh is home to numerous Islamic educational institutions, known as Madrasas, where students learn about Islamic theology, jurisprudence, and Arabic language. Islamic NGOs and charities also play a significant role in providing social welfare services to the less privileged sections of society. Furthermore, Islamic political parties contribute to the political landscape of Bangladesh.

Impact of Bangladesh National Religion on Culture and Society

Islam has left an indelible mark on Bangladesh’s culture and society. Islamic architecture, characterized by intricate designs and calligraphy, can be seen in mosques and historical landmarks across the country. The influence of Islam is also evident in the various festivals and celebrations observed by the Muslim community, such as Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, where families come together to pray and exchange greetings.

Islamic teachings have greatly influenced Bangladeshi literature, music, and cuisine. Many literary works in Bangladesh reflect Islamic values, spirituality, and moral teachings. Traditional music, such as Qawwali and Naat, draws inspiration from Islamic devotional songs. Additionally, Bangladeshi cuisine incorporates Islamic culinary traditions, with dishes like biryani, kebabs, and various sweets being popular among Muslims.

Islamic Law and Governance

In Bangladesh, Islamic law, known as Shariah law, coexists with the secular legal system. Shariah law primarily governs personal matters, such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance, for the Muslim population. The country has a separate set of Islamic courts that handle cases related to these matters. However, it is important to note that the secular legal system applies to all citizens, regardless of their religious affiliation.

Challenges and Controversies Surrounding Bangladesh National Religion

Bangladesh, like many other countries, faces certain challenges and controversies related to Islam. Sectarian divisions within the Muslim community have at times resulted in tensions and conflicts. Efforts are being made to promote interfaith dialogue and harmony to bridge these gaps and foster unity.

Women’s rights and gender issues are also topics of discussion within the context of Islam in Bangladesh. While Islam emphasizes the equality of men and women, some argue that certain cultural practices and interpretations of religious texts have led to gender disparities. Initiatives are underway to promote gender equality and empower women within the framework of Islamic teachings.

Extremism and counter-terrorism efforts are another significant concern. Bangladesh has faced incidents of extremist violence in the past, and the government has been actively involved in counter-terrorism measures to ensure the safety and security of its citizens while upholding the principles of Islam.

Bangladesh as a Moderate Muslim Nation

Bangladesh is often regarded as a moderate Muslim nation, promoting a harmonious coexistence of different religious communities. The country actively participates in global Islamic organizations, such as the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and strives to contribute to the development and progress of the Muslim world. Furthermore, the government of Bangladesh upholds the principles of religious freedom and endeavors to protect the rights of religious minorities.


Islam holds a significant place in the cultural, social, and political fabric of Bangladesh. As the national religion, it influences various aspects of the lives of the Bangladeshi people. The teachings of Islam have shaped their values, traditions, and artistic expressions, while the country remains committed to religious freedom and interfaith harmony.


  • Is Islam the only recognized religion in Bangladesh?

No, Islam is the national religion, but Bangladesh recognizes and respects the freedom of religion for all its citizens.

  • Are there any restrictions on religious practices for non-Muslims?

No, non-Muslims in Bangladesh have the right to freely practice their respective religions.

  • How has Islam influenced Bangladesh’s political landscape?

Islamic political parties have a presence in Bangladesh’s political landscape and contribute to the democratic process.

  • What is the significance of Sufism in Bangladeshi Islam?

Sufism has played a significant role in the spread of Islam in Bangladesh, emphasizing spirituality, devotion, and inner reflection.

  • How does Bangladesh compare to other Muslim-majority countries in terms of religious freedom?

Bangladesh is known for its commitment to religious freedom and promoting interfaith harmony, distinguishing it from many other Muslim-majority countries where religious freedom may be restricted or limited.


  • Ahmed, R. (2016). Sufism and Islamic Reform in Bangladesh: The Role of Shah Jalal Shrine. Journal of Islamic Studies and Culture, 4(1), 1-13.
  • Islam, S. (2019). Islam in Bangladesh. In The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Oxford University Press.
  • Kabeer, N. (2018). Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh: Policy Choices and Implementation Challenges. The University Press Limited.

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