Bangladesh National Bank: Empowering the Economy through Effective Governance

The Bangladesh Bank, also known as the “Bangladesh National Bank,” is the central bank and apex regulatory authority for the country’s banking and financial system. Established in 1972, following the independence of Bangladesh, the bank plays a vital role in ensuring the stability and growth of the nation’s economy. In this article, we will delve into the functions, structure, and contributions of the Bangladesh National Bank, exploring its impact on the financial sector and the overall development of Bangladesh.

The Bangladesh Bank serves as the custodian of monetary and financial stability in Bangladesh. It operates under the mandate of the Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972, and is governed by a board of directors appointed by the government. The bank’s primary objectives include formulating and implementing monetary policy, regulating and supervising banks and financial institutions, managing foreign exchange reserves, and promoting a sound financial system.

Organizational Structure of Bangladesh National Bank

The Bangladesh Bank’s organizational structure comprises the governing board, several departments, and divisions responsible for specific functions. The governing board consists of a Governor, Deputy Governors, and other members appointed by the government. The board provides strategic direction and oversees the bank’s operations. The departments and divisions, such as the Banking Regulation and Policy Department, Financial Stability Department, and Research Department, ensure effective execution of the bank’s functions.

Monetary Policy and Financial Stability

One of the key responsibilities of the Bangladesh Bank is formulating and implementing monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic stability. The bank utilizes various tools and strategies, including interest rate adjustments, open market operations, reserve requirements, and moral suasion, to manage inflation, exchange rates, and overall economic growth. It aims to strike a balance between price stability and supporting sustainable economic development.

Regulatory Functions of Bangladesh National Bank

The Bangladesh Bank is entrusted with the task of regulating and supervising banks and financial institutions operating in the country. It establishes prudential regulations, guidelines, and standards to ensure the soundness and integrity of the financial sector. The bank conducts regular inspections, audits, and assessments of banks, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements. It also grants licenses and approvals for the establishment and operation of financial institutions.

Financial Sector Development

The Bangladesh Bank is committed to promoting a sound and inclusive financial system. It actively supports initiatives to expand access to financial services for all segments of society, including rural areas and underserved populations. The bank encourages the development of digital financial services to facilitate secure and convenient transactions. It also plays a key role in the development of capital markets, encouraging the participation of both domestic and international investors.

Foreign Exchange Management

As the central bank, the Bangladesh Bank manages the country’s foreign exchange reserves and formulates policies related to exchange rates. It aims to maintain a stable and competitive exchange rate regime that supports export growth, attracts foreign investments, and facilitates international trade. The bank intervenes in the foreign exchange market to manage fluctuations and ensure market stability. Additionally, it facilitates remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, contributing significantly to the country’s foreign exchange inflows.

Bangladesh National Bank’s Contribution to Economic Development

The Bangladesh Bank actively contributes to the economic development of the country. It provides financing for various development projects, including infrastructure development, agriculture, and social welfare programs. The bank offers specialized loan schemes and financing facilities to support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and foster entrepreneurship. By promoting access to credit and financial services, the Bangladesh Bank plays a vital role in poverty alleviation and improving livelihoods.

International Cooperation and Collaboration

The Bangladesh Bank actively engages in international cooperation and collaboration with other central banks and financial institutions. It is a member of various international organizations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and Asian Development Bank (ADB). Through these partnerships, the bank shares expertise, best practices, and knowledge on central banking and financial sector development. It also participates in regional and global forums to contribute to discussions on economic and financial issues.

Challenges and Future Outlook for Bangladesh National Bank

While the Bangladesh Bank has made significant strides in promoting financial stability and economic development, it faces certain challenges. One of the primary concerns is cybersecurity risks, as the banking sector becomes increasingly digitalized. The bank is actively investing in robust cybersecurity measures to protect against cyber threats and ensure the safety of financial transactions and customer data.

Another challenge is enhancing financial literacy and education among the general population. The Bangladesh Bank recognizes the importance of empowering individuals with financial knowledge and skills to make informed decisions. It conducts awareness campaigns, workshops, and training programs to improve financial literacy and promote responsible financial behavior.

Looking ahead, the Bangladesh Bank aims to embrace technological advancements and innovation in the financial sector. It recognizes the potential of technologies such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, and digital payments in enhancing efficiency, transparency, and financial inclusion. By leveraging these advancements, the bank envisions a more inclusive and digitally-driven financial system for the country.


The Bangladesh Bank, as the central bank of Bangladesh, plays a crucial role in maintaining monetary and financial stability, regulating the banking sector, and fostering economic development. Through its various functions and initiatives, the bank contributes to the growth of the financial sector, promotes inclusive access to financial services, and supports economic progress. With a proactive approach to challenges and a focus on embracing technological advancements, the Bangladesh Bank is well-positioned to navigate the evolving landscape of the global economy and continue driving the development of Bangladesh.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the role of Bangladesh Bank?

The Bangladesh Bank serves as the central bank and regulatory authority for the country’s banking and financial system. It formulates and implements monetary policy, regulates and supervises banks and financial institutions, manages foreign exchange reserves, and promotes a sound and inclusive financial system.

2. How does Bangladesh Bank contribute to economic development?

The Bangladesh Bank contributes to economic development by financing development projects, supporting SMEs and entrepreneurship, and implementing initiatives.

3. What initiatives does Bangladesh Bank undertake to promote financial inclusion?

Bangladesh Bank undertakes various initiatives to promote financial inclusion. It encourages the development of digital financial services to ensure convenient and affordable access to financial services, particularly for underserved populations. The bank also implements programs to improve financial literacy and education, empowering individuals with the knowledge and skills to make informed financial decisions.

4. How does Bangladesh Bank manage foreign exchange reserves?

Bangladesh Bank manages foreign exchange reserves by closely monitoring and controlling the inflows and outflows of foreign currency. It formulates policies related to exchange rates, intervenes in the foreign exchange market when necessary, and takes measures to maintain stability and competitiveness. The bank plays a crucial role in facilitating international trade and remittances, which contribute to the country’s foreign exchange reserves.

5. What are the future priorities of Bangladesh Bank?

The future priorities of Bangladesh Bank include addressing cybersecurity risks by investing in advanced security measures and systems. The bank aims to enhance financial literacy and education to promote responsible financial behavior and decision-making. It also seeks to embrace technological advancements to drive innovation and efficiency in the financial sector, ensuring the inclusion of all segments of society in the digital economy.


  • Bangladesh Bank Official Website:
  • “The Bangladesh Bank and Its Role in the Economy” – Ahmed, S., & Khan, M. H. (2019). Journal of Business and Technology (Dhaka), 14(1), 47-66.
  • “Monetary Policy Framework and Transmission Mechanism in Bangladesh” – Hasan, I., & Jahan, S. (2019). Bangladesh Bank Working Paper Series, No. 1901.

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