Austria National Bird: The Barn Swallow

The Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) is a small, migratory bird that holds the esteemed title of Austria National Bird. This feathered friend is a symbol of hope, freedom, and unity, and is admired for its graceful flight and vibrant colors. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of the Barn Swallow, exploring its habitat, behavior, and importance in Austrian culture.

Habitat and Distribution of Austria National Bird

Barn Swallows are widespread across the Northern Hemisphere, with their breeding range extending from Europe and Asia to North America. In Austria, these birds are commonly found in rural areas, where they build their nests in barns, under bridges, and in other human-made structures. Barn Swallows are migratory birds, spending their winters in warmer regions of Africa, South America, and southern Asia.

Physical Characteristics of Austria National Bird

The Barn Swallow is a small bird, measuring approximately 17-19 cm in length and weighing around 16-22 grams. It has a distinctive forked tail, which is longer in males than in females. The upperparts are metallic blue, while the underparts are pale, with a rusty-red throat and forehead. Juveniles have a shorter tail and duller coloration.

Behavior and Diet of Barn Swallow

Barn Swallows are agile flyers, capable of catching insects in mid-air. Their diet consists mainly of flying insects, including flies, mosquitoes, and beetles. They are social birds, often seen in large flocks during migration and in their wintering grounds. Barn Swallows are monogamous and form long-lasting pair bonds.

Breeding and Nesting Patterns

The breeding season for Barn Swallows in Austria occurs between April and August. The birds construct cup-shaped nests using mud, grass, and feathers, often attaching them to vertical surfaces such as walls or beams. The female lays a clutch of 4-5 eggs, which are incubated by both parents for about 14-16 days. The chicks fledge after 18-23 days and may receive parental care for a few more weeks.


1. Why is the Barn Swallow the national bird of Austria?

The Barn Swallow is a symbol of hope, freedom, and unity in Austrian culture. Its graceful flight and vibrant colors have made it a beloved bird among the Austrian people.

2. Are Barn Swallows endangered?

Barn Swallows are not currently considered endangered. However, their populations have been declining in some regions due to habitat loss, pesticide use, and climate change.

3. How can I help protect Barn Swallows and their habitats?

You can help by supporting local conservation efforts, reducing pesticide use, and providing nesting sites for swallows on your property, such as installing nest cups or ledges.

4. Do Barn Swallows migrate in flocks?

Yes, Barn Swallows migrate in large flocks, often numbering in thousands. They are known for their impressive aerial displays during migration.


The Barn Swallow, Austria’s national bird, is a captivating and important species that is cherished by the Austrian people. By understanding their habitat, behavior, and role in Austrian culture, we can appreciate the beauty and significance of these small, yet remarkable birds.

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