Botswana National Tree: The Marula Tree

Botswana, a landlocked country in Southern Africa, is home to a remarkable natural treasure known as the Marula tree or the Botswana National Tree. This unique tree, with its rich cultural and historical significance, holds a special place in the hearts of the Batswana people. In this article, we will explore the Marula tree in detail, delving into its botanical characteristics, medicinal uses, economic benefits, conservation efforts, and more. Join us on this journey as we uncover the secrets of Botswana’s national tree.

The Marula tree, scientifically known as Sclerocarya birrea, is a deciduous tree that grows in various regions of Botswana. It belongs to the Anacardiaceae family and can reach an impressive height of up to 20 meters. Its distinct features include a gnarled trunk, spreading branches, and a crown of dark green leaves that provide shade in the scorching African sun.

Botswana’s Connection to the Marula Tree

For centuries, the Marula tree has been deeply intertwined with Botswana’s history and culture. It holds immense importance to the Batswana people, who have regarded it as their national tree since 2001. This tree’s significance goes beyond its botanical attributes, becoming a symbol of strength, endurance, and resilience.

Botanical Description of the Marula Tree

The Marula tree’s botanical characteristics make it a remarkable species within the African landscape. Its dense canopy of leaves provides shelter to a myriad of wildlife species, while its white flowers bloom in clusters during the summer, attracting bees and other pollinators. Additionally, the tree produces small, round fruits known as Marula fruits, which play a vital role in both traditional and modern applications.

Historical Significance of the Botswana National Tree

Throughout history, the Marula tree has held great importance in the lives of the Batswana people. It has been a source of nourishment during times of scarcity and a valuable commodity in trade. The tree’s historical significance is evident in various cultural practices, folklore, and traditional ceremonies that revolve around it.

Cultural Importance of the Botswana National Tree

The Marula tree holds a sacred place in Batswana culture. It is often associated with celebrations, fertility, and the passing down of ancestral knowledge. The fruit of the Marula tree, with its sweet and tangy taste, is used to make traditional alcoholic beverages such as “mampoer” and “dikgobe.” These beverages are deeply ingrained in Batswana culture and play a significant role in social gatherings and rituals.

Medicinal Uses of the Marula Tree

The Marula tree has a long history of medicinal applications. Various parts of the tree, including the bark, leaves, and fruit, possess healing properties that have been utilized by traditional healers for centuries. The tree’s extracts have been used to treat ailments such as diarrhea, dysentery, and stomach ulcers, as well as to alleviate symptoms of fever and inflammation.

Economic Benefits of the Marula Tree

Apart from its cultural and medicinal significance, the Marula tree also provides substantial economic benefits to the people of Botswana. The Marula fruits are harvested and processed into oils, jams, and beauty products, which are then sold locally and internationally. This has created employment opportunities and income for many communities, contributing to the country’s sustainable development.

Conservation Efforts for the Botswana National Tree

Due to the Marula tree’s cultural, historical, and economic importance, conservation efforts have been initiated to protect and preserve this iconic species. Botswana’s government and various organizations work together to raise awareness about the tree’s significance, promote sustainable harvesting practices, and ensure the long-term survival of the Marula tree in its natural habitat.

Threats to the Marula Tree

Although efforts are being made to safeguard the Marula tree, it faces several threats that endanger its existence. Deforestation, habitat loss, and climate change pose significant challenges to the tree’s survival. Additionally, unsustainable harvesting practices and the encroachment of agriculture and urbanization further exacerbate the tree’s vulnerability.

Interesting Facts About the Botswana National Tree

Here are some fascinating facts about the Marula tree:

  • The Marula tree is dioecious, meaning individual trees are either male or female.
  • Elephants are known to be particularly fond of the tree’s fruits, often consuming them and dispersing the seeds over long distances.
  • The Marula tree has a strong taproot that enables it to access groundwater in arid environments.
  • It can live for hundreds of years, with some specimens believed to be over 1,000 years old.
  • The tree’s scientific name, Sclerocarya birrea, is derived from the Greek words “skleros” (hard) and “karyon” (nut), referencing the tree’s hard-shelled fruits.

Wildlife and the Marula Tree

The Marula tree serves as a vital habitat and food source for numerous wildlife species in Botswana. It provides shelter and nesting sites for birds, monkeys, and small mammals, while its fruits sustain a wide range of animals, including elephants, antelopes, and baboons. The tree’s ecological role contributes to the biodiversity and overall health of Botswana’s ecosystems.

Marula Tree and Sustainable Development

The Marula tree exemplifies the concept of sustainable development. Its multiple uses, from cultural practices to economic ventures, demonstrate how natural resources can be harnessed responsibly to benefit local communities and the environment. By incorporating the Marula tree into sustainable development practices, Botswana showcases the harmonious relationship between nature, culture, and socio-economic progress.

Symbolism of the Botswana National Tree

The Marula tree holds deep symbolic meaning in Botswana. It represents strength, wisdom, and resilience, embodying the spirit of the Batswana people. The tree’s presence in the landscape serves as a reminder of Botswana’s cultural heritage and the need to protect and cherish the natural resources that sustain its society.

Ecotourism Opportunities Around the Marula Tree

The Marula tree’s cultural and ecological significance has also opened doors for ecotourism initiatives in Botswana. Travelers from around the world visit the country to witness the majestic Marula tree in its natural habitat, learn about its cultural importance, and experience the unique wildlife that thrives in its presence. Ecotourism provides a sustainable avenue for economic growth while promoting conservation and cultural exchange.


The Marula tree stands as a testament to Botswana’s rich heritage, intertwining nature, culture, and sustainable development. From its botanical characteristics to its medicinal uses, economic benefits, and symbolic value, the Marula tree remains a national treasure. However, conservation efforts are crucial to ensure its survival amidst environmental challenges. By protecting the Marula tree, Botswana safeguards its natural and cultural heritage for future generations.


1. Is the Marula tree only found in Botswana?

The Marula tree is native to various countries in Southern Africa, including Botswana. While it can be found in other regions, it holds special significance as Botswana’s national tree.

2. Can you eat the fruit of the Marula tree?

Yes, the Marula fruits are edible and have a sweet and tangy flavor. They are used in traditional beverages and can also be consumed raw or processed into jams and oils.

3. How is the Marula tree connected to Botswana’s culture?

The Marula tree is deeply rooted in Botswana’s culture and plays a significant role in traditional ceremonies, folklore, and social gatherings. It symbolizes strength, endurance, and the passing down of ancestral knowledge.

4. Are there any conservation efforts in place to protect the Marula tree?

Yes, Botswana’s government and various organizations are actively involved in conservation efforts to protect the Marula tree. These initiatives aim to raise awareness, promote sustainable harvesting practices, and conserve the tree’s natural habitat.

5. Can I visit the Marula tree in its natural habitat?

Yes, the Marula tree provides opportunities for ecotourism in Botswana. Travelers can experience the tree’s cultural significance, observe wildlife, and explore the unique ecosystems that thrive around the Marula tree.


  • Cuni, A., Menichetti, L., & Shrestha, P. (2017). Assessment of the nutritive value of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea) and Marula (S. birrea subsp. caffra) fruits. Food Chemistry, 237, 39-46.
  • Department of Forestry and Range Resources. (2001). National Tree Policy. Government of Botswana.
  • Hughes, C. E., & Dyer, R. A. (1992). Evidence for the monophyly of Sclerocarya Birrea and the Paraphyly of Spondias. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 79(2), 418-426.
  • Kaloli, P. N., & Gumbo, D. J. (2014). Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Dendron and Louis Trichardt, South

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